Why Red Hat’s OpenShift, not OpenStack, is making waves with developers

Red Hat has historically whiffed with developers. But, its PaaS offering, OpenShift, may mark a new era for the open source giant.

Developers may be the new kingmakers in the enterprise, to borrow Redmonk’s phrase, but they’ve long ignored the enterprise open source leader, Red Hat. Two years ago, I called out Red Hat’s apparent inability to engage the very audience that would ensure its long-term relevance. Now, there are signs that Red Hat got the message.

And, no, I’m not talking about OpenStack. Though Red Hat keeps selling OpenStack (seven of its top-30 deals last quarter included OpenStack, according to Red Hat CEO Jim Whitehurst), it’s really OpenShift, the company’s Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) offering, that promises a bright, developer-friendly future for Red Hat.

redhatLooking beyond OpenStack

Red Hat continues to push OpenStack, and rightly so—it’s a way for Red Hat to certify a cloud platform just as it once banked on certifying the Linux platform. There’s money in assuring risk-averse CIOs that it’s safe to go into the OpenStack cloud environment.

Even so, as Whitehurst told investors in June, OpenStack is not yet “material” to the company’s overall revenue, and generally generates deals under $100,000. It will continue to grow, but OpenStack adoption is primarily about telcos today, and that’s unlikely to change as enterprises grow increasingly comfortable with public IaaS and PaaS options. OpenStack feels like a way to help enterprises avoid the public cloud and try to dress up their data centers in the fancy “private cloud” lingo.

OpenShift, by contrast, is far more interesting.

OpenShift, after all, opens Red Hat up to containers and all they mean for enterprise developer productivity. It’s also a way to pull through other Red Hat software like JBoss and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, because Red Hat’s PaaS is built on these products. OpenShift has found particular traction among sophisticated financial services companies that want to get in early on containers, but the list of customers includes a wide range of companies like Swiss Rail, BBVA, and many others.

More and faster

To be clear, Red Hat still has work to do. According to Gartner’s most recent Magic Quadrant for PaaS, Salesforce and Microsoft are still a ways ahead, particularly in their ability to execute their vision:


Still, there are reasons to think Red Hat will separate itself from the PaaS pack. For one thing, the company is putting its code where it hopes its revenue will be. Red Hat learned long ago that, to monetize Linux effectively, it needed to contribute heavily. In similar fashion, only Google surpasses Red Hat in Kubernetes code contributions, and Docker Inc. is the only company to contribute more code to the Docker container project.

Why does this matter? If you’re an enterprise that wants a container platform then you’re going to trust those vendors that best understand the underlying code and have the ability to influence its direction. That’s Red Hat.

Indeed, one of the things that counted against Red Hat in Gartner’s Magic Quadrant ranking was its focus on Kubernetes and Docker (“Docker and Kubernetes have tremendous potential, but these technologies are still young and evolving,” the report said). These may be young and relatively immature technologies, but all signs point to them dominating a container-crazy enterprise world for many years to come. Kubernetes, as I’ve written, is winning the container management war, putting Red Hat in pole position to benefit from that adoption, especially as it blends familiar tools like JBoss with exciting-but-unfamiliar technologies like Docker.

Red Hat has also been lowering the bar for getting started and productive with OpenShift, as Serdar Yegulalp described. By focusing on developer darlings like Docker and Kubernetes, and making them easily consumable by developers and more easily run by operations, Red Hat is positioning itself to finally be relevant to developers…and in a big way.

Getting started with basics of building your own cloud

Openstack Cloud tutorial

My daily routine involves too much of AWS Cloud infrastructure. And let me tell you AWS now has grown to an extent that it has now become the synonym of Cloud. I mean they have grown without leap and bounds in the past few years and believe me many other major players are not even near them in the cloud arena (Yeah of course Google and Microsoft does have their own cloud solutions which are pretty brilliant for all use cases, but nobody has the user/customer base that aws has in their public cloud architecture).

Nothing can match the flexibility, elasticity, and ease of use that cloud provides.  Because I remember when I use to work with physical hardware machines (I had to literally wait for hours to get one ready up and running for an emergency requirement. Then if I need additional storage for that machine again wait some more time.) . And if you are using the cloud, then you can spin up a few cloud servers in seconds (believe me in seconds) and test whatever you want.

What is OpenStack Cloud?

An year ago I happen to read an article from netcraft regarding their findings on AWS. According to them in 2013 itself AWS has crossed the mark of 158K in the total number of public facing computers.

Now imagine if you get the same features that AWS cloud provides with something open source that you can build in your own data centre. Isn’t that amazing? Well that’s the reason why tech giants like IBM, HP, Intel, Red Hat, CISCO, Juniper, Yahoo, Dell, Netapp, Vmware, Godaddy, Paypal, Canonical(Ubuntu) support and fund such a project.

This open source project is called as Open Stack, and is currently supported by more than 150 tech companies worldwide. It all started as a combined project by NASA and Rackspace in 2009 (well both were independently developing their own individual projects, which at a later point got together and later called as OpenStack). Well NASA was behind a project called as NOVA(which is very analogous to amazon ec2 and provided computing feature), and Rackspace built another tool called as Swift(a highly scalable object storage solution, very similar to AWS S3).

Apart from these, there are other components that help make openstack very much same as aws cloud(we will be discussing each of them shortly, and in upcoming tutorials, we will configure each of them to build our own cloud).

Openstack can be used by anybody who wants their own cloud infrastructure, similar to AWS. Although its origin will trace back to NASA, its not actively developed/supported by NASA any more.

And they are currently leveraging aws public cloud infrastructure J

If you want to simply use openstack public cloud, then you can use Rackspace Cloud, ENovance, HP cloud etc(these are very much similar to aws cloud.) with their cost associated. Apart from these public openstack cloud offerings, there are plug and play cloud services, where you have dedicated hardware appliance for openstack. Just purchasing it and plugging it would turn it into an openstack cloud service without any further configurations.

Let’s now discuss some of the crucial components of OpenStack, which when combined together will make a robust cloud like any other commercial cloud (Like AWS), that too in your datacenter, completely managed and controlled by your team.

When you talk about cloud, the first thing that comes to your mind will be virtualization. Because virtualization is the technology that caused this cloud revolution possible. Virtualization basically is nothing but the method of slicing resources of a physical machine to smaller/required parts, and those slices will act as independent hosts sharing resources with other slices on the machine.  This enables optimal use of computing resources.

  • OpenStack Compute:  So one of the main component of cloud is virtual machines, that can scale without bounds. This need of the cloud in openstack is fulfilled by something called as Nova. Nova is the name of the software component in OpenStack cloud, that offers and manages virtual machines.

Apart from the compute requirements, the second major requirement is storage. There are two different types of storage in the cloud, one is block storage(very similar to the way how you use RAID partition on any of your servers and format it and use it for all kind of local storage needs), or  normal disk storage, where your operating system files are installed etc.

  • OpenStack block storage (Cynder): will work similar to attaching and detaching an external hard drive to your operating system, for its local use. Block storage is useful for database storage, or raw storage for the server(like format it, mount it and use it), or else you can combine several for distributed file system needs (like you can make a large gluster volume, out of several block storage devices attached to a virtual machine launched by Nova).

The second type of storage full fills the scaling needs, without bounds. You need a storage that can scale without worry. Where your storage need is of static objects. This can be used for storing static large data like backups, archives etc. It can be accessed with its own API, and is replicated cross datacenter, to withstand large disasters.

  • OpenStack Object storage(Swift): is suitable for storing multimedia content like videos, images, virtual machine images, backups, email storage, archives etc. This type of data needs to grow without any limitation, and needs to be replicated. This is exactly what OpenStack swift is designed to do.

Last but not the least, comes Networking. Networking in the cloud has become so matured that you can create your own private networks, access control lists, create routes between them, interconnect different networks, connect to remote network using VPN etc. Almost all of these needs of an enterprise cloud is taken care by openstack networking.

  • Openstack Networking(Nova-networking, or Neutron): When I say openstack networking, think of it as something that manages networking for all our virtual hosts(instances), and provide IP address both private and public. You might be thinking that networking in virtualization is quite easy by setting up a bridge adapter and routing all traffic through it, similar to many virtual adapters. But here we are talking about an entire cloud, that should have public ip’s, that can be attached, detached from the instances that we launch inside, there must be one fixed ip for each instance, and then there must never be a single point of failure etc.

According to me openstack networking is the most complex thing that needs to be designed by taking extreme care. We will be discussing openstack networking in very detail, in a dedicated post, because of its complexity, and importance. Also it can be done with two different tools. One is called as nova-networking, and the other is called as neutron. Please note the fact that each and every component of openstack cloud needs special attention on its own, as they are each very distinct and work combined together to form a cloud. Hence i will be doing dedicated post for each of its major components.

Openstack is very highly configurable, due to this very reason, its quite difficult to mention all of its possible configurations in a tutorial. You will come to know about this, at a later point, when we start configuring things in the upcoming series of posts.

Higher Level Overview of Openstack Architecture

Component Name Used for Similar to
Horizon A dashboard for end users or administrators to access other backend services AWS Management Web Console
Nova Compute Manages virtualization and takes requests from end user through dashboard or API to form virtual Instances AWS Elastic Compute
Cynder For Block storage, directly attachable to any virtual instance, similar to an external hard drive EBS(Elastic Block Store)
Glance This is used for maintaining a catalog for images and is kind of a repository for images. AMI (Amazon Machine Images)
Swift This is used for Object storage that can be used by your applications or instances to store static objects like multimedia files, backups, store images, archives etc. AWS S3
Keystone This component is responsible for managing authentication services for all components. Like a credentials and authorization, and authentication for users AWS Identity And Access Management(IAM)

You might have got an idea of what OpenStack Cloud actually is till now. Let’s now answer some questions, that can really prove helpful in getting a little bit more idea of what openstack really is, or say how these individual components fit together to form a cloud.

What is Horizon Dashboard?

Its nothing but a web interface for users and administrators to interact with your OpenStack cloud. Its basically a Django Web Application implemented in mod_wsgi and Apache. Its primary objective is to interact with the backend API’s of other components and execute requests initiated by users. It interacts with keystone authentication service, to authorize requests before doing anything

Does nova-compute perform virtualization?

Well, nova-compute basically is a daemon that does the job of creating and terminating virtual machines. It does this job through virtual machine API calls. There is something called as a libvirt library. Libvirt is nothing but an API for interacting with Linux virtualization technologies(its a free and open source software that needs to be installed with nova as a dependency).

Basically libvirt gives nova-compute, the functionality to send API requests to KVM, Xen, LXC, OpenVZ, Virtualbox, Vmware, Parallels hypervisors.

So when a user in openstack requests to launch a cloud instance, what actually happens is nova-compute sending requests to hypervisors using libvirt. Well other than libvirt, nova-compute can send requests directly to Xen-Api, vSphere API etc. This wide support of different virtualization technologies is the main strength of nova.

How does Swift Work?

Well swift is a highly scalable object storage. Object Storage in itself, is a big topic, so i recommend reading the below post.

Unlike block storage, files are not organized in hierarchical name space. But they are organized in a flat name space. Although it can give you an illusion of a folder with contents inside, all files inside all folders are in a single name space, due to which scaling becomes much easier compared to block storage.

Swift uses multiple commodity servers and backend storage devices to combine together and form a large pool of storage as per the requirement of the end user. This can be scaled without bounds, by simply adding more nodes in the future.

swift object storage

What is keystone?

Its a single point of contact for policy, authentication, and identity management in openstack cloud. It can work with different authentication backends like Ldap, SQL or a simple key value store.

Keystone has two primary functions

  • Manage Users. Like tracking of all users, and their permissions.
  • Service list/catalog. This is nothing but providing information regarding what services are available and their respective API endpoint details.

What is Openstack Cinder?

As discussed before and shown in the diagram, cinder is nothing but a block storage service. It provides a software block storage on top of basic traditional block storage devices to instances that nova-compute launches.

In simple terms we can say that cinder does the job of virtualizing pools of block storage(any traditional storage device) and makes it available to end users via API. Users use those virtual block storage volume inside their virtual machines, without knowing where the volume is actually deployed in the architecture, or knowing details about the underlying device of the storage.

Building Your Application for Cloud Portability – An Alternative Approach to Hybrid Cloud


TOSCA | Hybrid Cloud | Cloud Portability | Cloud Orchestration | Hybrid IT | Open Source Cloud Automation | Cloud Orchestration Tools | Multi-Cloud
In my previous post, I discussed the differences between hybrid cloud and cloud portability, as well as how to achieve true hybrid cloud deployments without compromising on infrastructure API abstraction, by providing several use cases for cloud portability.

Cloud Portability Defined (again)

For the sake of clarity, I thought it would be a good idea to include my definition of cloud portability again here: “Cloud portability is the ability to run the same application on multiple cloud infrastructures, private or public. This is basically what makes hybrid cloud possible.”

Clearly, the common infrastructure API abstraction approach forces too many restrictions on the user which makes it fairly useless for many of the cloud portability use cases.

In this post, I would like to propose another method for making cloud portability, and therefore true hybrid cloud, a reality.

An Alternative Approach

One of the use cases I previously mentioned for allowing application deployment portability to an environment, that doesn’t conform to the same set of features and APIs, is iOS and Android. With operating systems, we see that software providers are able to successfully solve the portability aspect without forcing a common abstraction.

What can we learn about cloud portability from the iOS/Android use case?

Treat portability differently between the application consumer and the application owner – One of the main observation from the iOS/Android case is that, while the consumer is often completely abstracted from the differences between the two platforms, the application developer is not abstracted and often needs to treat each platform differently and sometimes even duplicate certain aspects of the application’s components and logic to suit the underlying environment. The application owner, therefore, has the incentive to support and even invest in portability as this increases the application’s overall market reach.

Minimizing the differences, not eliminating them – While the application owner has more incentive to support each platform natively, it is important to use cloud portability as a framework that will allow for minimizing but not eliminating the differences to allow simpler development and maintenance.

The main lesson from this use case is that, to achieve a similar degree of cloud portability, we need to make a distinction between the application consumer and the application owner. For cloud portability, in order to ensure a native experience for the application consumer, we need to assume that the application owner will be required to duplicate their integration effort per target cloud.


This is the same approach we should take with cloud application portability!

So, how does one go about doing that?

Achieving Cloud Portability with ARIA – A Simple Multi-Cloud Orchestration Framework

In this section, I will refer to this specific project as a means by which to illustrate the principles that I mentioned above in more concrete terms.

Project ARIA is a new Apache-licensed project that provide simple, zero footprint multi-cloud orchestration based on TOSCA. It was built originally as the core orchestration for Cloudify and is now an independent project.

The diagram below provides an inside look at the ARIA architecture.


There are three pillars, upon which ARIA is built, that are needed to manage the entire stack and lifecycle of an application:

1) An infrastructure-neutral, easily extensible templating language

2) Cloud plugins

3) Workflows

TOSCA Templating Language vs. API Abstraction

ARIA utilizes the TOSCA templating language in its application blueprints which provides a means for deploying and orchestrating a single application on multiple infrastructures through individual plugins, thereby circumventing the need for a single abstraction layer.

Templating languages, such as TOSCA, provide far greater flexibility for abstraction than API abstraction as it allows easy extensibility and customization without the need to develop or change the underlying implementation code. This is done by mapping the underlying cloud API into types and allowing the user to define the way it accesses and uses those types through scripts.

With Cloudify, we chose to use TOSCA as the templating language because of its inherent infrastructure-neutral design as well as being designed as a DSL which has lots of the characteristics of a language that utilizes the support of inheritance, interfaces and a strong typing system.

Cloud Plugins

Built-in plugins for a wide range of cloud services provide out of the box integration points with the most common of these services, but unlike the least common denominator approach (i.e. a single API abstraction layer), they can be easily extended to support any cloud service.


Workflows enable interaction with the deployment graph and provide another way to abstract common cloud operational tasks such as upgrades, snapshots, scaling, etc.

Putting It All Together

By combining the three aforementioned elements, the user is given a set of building blocks for managing the entire application stack and its lifecycle. It also provides a richer degree of flexibility that allows users to define their own degree of abstraction per use case or application.

In this manner, cloud portability is achievable without the need to change your underlying code, and, in doing so, you enable true hybrid cloud.

VMware: We love OpenStack!

A few years ago VMware and OpenStack were foes. Oh, how times have changed.

This week VMware is out with the 2.5 release of its VMware Integrated OpenStack (VIO). The virtualization giant continues to make it easier to run the open source cloud management tools on top of VMware virtualized infrastructure.

VMware, Inc

VIO’s 2.5 release shows the continued commitment by VMware to embrace OpenStack, something that would have seen out of the question a few short years ago.

The 2.5 release comes with some nifty new features: Users can automatically important vSphere virtual machine images into their VIO OpenStack cloud now. The resource manager control plane is slimmed down by 30% so it takes up less memory. There are better integrations with VMware’s NSX too.

The news shows the continued maturation of both the open source project and the virtualization giant. Once VMware and OpenStack were seen as rivals. In many ways, they still are. Both allow organizations to build private clouds. But VMware (smartly in my opinion) realized that giving customers choice is a good thing. Instead of being an all or nothing VMware vs. OpenStack dichotomy, VMware has embraced OpenStack, allowing VMware’s virtualization management tools to serve up the virtualized infrastructure OpenStack needs to operate.

VMware’s doing the same thing with application containers. Once seen as a threat to virtual machines, VMware is making the argument that the best place to run containers are in it’s virtual machines that have been slimmed down and customized to run containers. Stay tuned to see if all these gambles pay off.